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CDL Classifications | CDL Endorsements | CDL Restrictions

Tool to select the Class of CDL and Endorsements - based upon vehicle and load type.

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 cdl endorsement codes,  restriction codes CDL Classification Codes
CDL Endorsement Codes
CDL Restriction Codes
CDL Selector Flow Chart

CDL Classifications

  • Class A CDL Bundle In most states, this license allows the driver to operate any vehicle with a semi-trailer or trailer with two or more axles. This also includes any combination of vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 26,000 pounds (provided that the GVWR of the towed vehicle is in excess of 10,000 pounds) under the following conditions.
    • For drivers towing trailers with more than 10,000 pounds of GVWR.
    • Allows the holder to operate Class B and C vehicles.
    • Drivers may be able to operate tractor-trailers, truck and trailer combinations, double and triple trailers, tractor-trailer buses, tanker vehicles, livestock carriers, and flatbeds. Common careers for holders include heavy truck drivers, dispatchers, local drivers, couriers, and bus drivers.
    You must possess appropriate endorsements based upon the loads you carry.
  • Class B CDL Bundle - This license allows the driver to operate any vehicle with a GVWR greater than 26,000 pounds, as well as any vehicle towing a trailer that does not exceed a GVWR of 10,000 pounds under the following conditions.
    • For drivers towing trailers with less than 10,000 pounds of GVWR.
    • Holder can operate Class C vehicles, but not Class A vehicles.
    • Drivers may be able to operate straight trucks, box trucks (like delivery trucks), large buses (such as school buses and city buses, and tourist buses), and dump trucks with small trailers.
    You must possess appropriate endorsements based upon the loads you carry.
    • A vehicle designed to carry 16 or more passengers (including the driver). You must also possess the Passenger Vehicles Endorsement. Usually required for school buses even when carrying fewer than 16 passengers (including the driver). If driving a school bus, you would also need a Passengers Vehicles (P) and School Bus (P) Edorsement.
    • When carrying Hazardous Materials requiring placarding. You would also need the Hazardous Materials Endorsement (H).
    • When driving a vehicle with a tank exceeding 1000 gallons (but GVWR does not exceed 26,000 pounds). You would also need a Tank Vehicle (T) Endorsement.

CDL Endorsement Codes and Descriptions

T, P, S, N, H and X are Federal endorsements. Any other endorsements have been promulgated at the State level. i.e. New York DMV requires a "W" endorsement to legally operate a tow truck in New York.

States may have a more restrictive category for a class of license, or have additional codes for endorsements or restrictions on CDLs that are not mentioned in the Federal regulations, as long as these items are fully explained on the license document. Check your specific CDL Requirements - Info for details.

CLP Endorsements - Only 3 endorsements are allowed on the CLP

  • P - CDL Passenger Vehicles: A CLP holder with a "P" endorsement is prohibited from operating a CMV carrying passengers, other than Federal/state auditors and inspectors, test examiners, other trainees, and the CDL holder accompanying the CLP holder as prescribed by 49CFR383.25(a)(1).
  • S - CDL School Bus: A CLP holder with an "S" endorsement is prohibited from operating a school with passengers, other than Federal/state auditors and inspectors, test examiners, other trainees, and the CDL holder accompanying the CLP holder as prescribed by 49CFR383.25(a)(1).
  • N - CDL Tanker Vehicles: A CLP holder with an "N" endorsement may only operate an empty tank vehicle, and is prohibited from operating any tank vehicle that previously contained hazardous materials that have not been purged of any residue.

CDL Restriction Codes and Descriptions

FREE CDL Practice Test
  • L - If the driver does not pass the Air Brakes Knowledge Test, does not correctly identify the air brake system components, does not properly conduct an air brake systems check, or does not take the Skills test in a vehicle with a full air brake system, the driver must have an "L" no full air brake restriction placed on their license.
  • Z - If the driver takes the test in a vehicle with an air over hydraulic brake system, then they will have a "Z" no full air brake restriction placed on their license. In either case the driver is not authorized to operate a CMV equipped with full air brakes.
  • E - If the driver takes the Skills Test in a vehicle that has an automatic transmission, then an "E" no manual transmission restriction is placed on their license.
  • O - If the driver takes the Skills Test in a Class A vehicle that has a pintle hook or other non-fifth wheel connection, they will have an "O" restriction placed on their license restricting them from driving any Class A vehicle with a fifth wheel connection.
  • M - If a driver possesses a Class A CDL, but obtains his or her passenger or school bus endorsement in a Class B vehicle the State must place an "M" restriction indicating that the driver can only operate Class B and C passenger vehicle or school buses.
  • N - If a driver possesses a Class B CDL, but obtains his or her passenger or school bus endorsement in a Class C vehicle; the State must place an "N" restriction indicating that the driver can only operate Class C passenger vehicle or school buses.
  • V - If the State is notified by the FMCSA that a medical variance has been issued to the driver, the State must indicate the existence of such a medical variance on the CDLIS driving record and the CDL document using a restriction code "V" to indicate that there is information about the medical variance on the CDLIS record.

ODD-BALL Drivers License Restriction Codes and Descriptions that don't necessarily apply to a CDL and that are not recognized in all states.

  • 3 - If the driver does not pass the Air Brakes Knowledge Test, does not correctly identify the air brake system components, does not properly conduct an air brake systems check, or does not take the Skills test in a vehicle with a full air brake system, the driver must have an "L" no full air brake restriction placed on their license.
  • B - If the driver takes the test in a vehicle with an air over hydraulic brake system, then they will have a "Z" no full air brake restriction placed on their license. In either case the driver is not authorized to operate a CMV equipped with full air brakes.
  • C - If the driver takes the Skills Test in a vehicle that has an automatic transmission, then an "E" no manual transmission restriction is placed on their license.
  • D - If the driver takes the Skills Test in a Class A vehicle that has a pintle hook or other non-fifth wheel connection, they will have an "O" restriction placed on their license restricting them from driving any Class A vehicle with a fifth wheel connection.
  • F - If a driver possesses a Class A CDL, but obtains his or her passenger or school bus endorsement in a Class B vehicle the State must place an "M" restriction indicating that the driver can only operate Class B and C passenger vehicle or school buses.
  • G - If a driver possesses a Class B CDL, but obtains his or her passenger or school bus endorsement in a Class C vehicle; the State must place an "N" restriction indicating that the driver can only operate Class C passenger vehicle or school buses.
  • K - If the State is notified by the FMCSA that a medical variance has been issued to the driver, the State must indicate the existence of such a medical variance on the CDLIS driving record and the CDL document using a restriction code "V" to indicate that there is information about the medical variance on the CDLIS record.
  • O - If the driver takes the test in a vehicle with an air over hydraulic brake system, then they will have a "Z" no full air brake restriction placed on their license. In either case the driver is not authorized to operate a CMV equipped with full air brakes.
  • P - If the driver takes the Skills Test in a vehicle that has an automatic transmission, then an "E" no manual transmission restriction is placed on their license.
  • U - If the driver takes the Skills Test in a Class A vehicle that has a pintle hook or other non-fifth wheel connection, they will have an "O" restriction placed on their license restricting them from driving any Class A vehicle with a fifth wheel connection.
  • V - If a driver possesses a Class A CDL, but obtains his or her passenger or school bus endorsement in a Class B vehicle the State must place an "M" restriction indicating that the driver can only operate Class B and C passenger vehicle or school buses.
  • W - If a driver possesses a Class B CDL, but obtains his or her passenger or school bus endorsement in a Class C vehicle; the State must place an "N" restriction indicating that the driver can only operate Class C passenger vehicle or school buses.
  • X - If the State is notified by the FMCSA that a medical variance has been issued to the driver, the State must indicate the existence of such a medical variance on the CDLIS driving record and the CDL document using a restriction code "V" to indicate that there is information about the medical variance on the CDLIS record.
  • Z - If the State is notified by the FMCSA that a medical variance has been issued to the driver, the State must indicate the existence of such a medical variance on the CDLIS driving record and the CDL document using a restriction code "V" to indicate that there is information about the medical variance on the CDLIS record.
Use the CDL Selector flowchart to determine which class of CDL and which CDL endorsements you need.
 cdl class and endorsement selector